Tradicija i običaji na Badnji dan

(Patria) – Pravoslavni vjernici, čija crkva poštuje stari julijanski kalendar, Božić, rođenje Isusa Hrista, proslavljaju 7. januara. Prethodi mu božićni post, koji traje od 28. novembra do 6. januara. Osnovni ciljevi posta su: proslavljanje Boga i njegovih svetih i očišćenje duše i tijela od tjelesnih i duševnih strasti. Post podrazumijeva molitve i činjenje dobročinstava, uzdržavanje od loših misli, želja i djela, kao i uzdržavanje od mrsne hrane.

Božić označava trenutak promjene u prirodi, završetak ciklusa koji je trajao godinu dana i početak novog vegetacionog perioda. Posljednji dan prije Božića i ujedno posljednji dan božićnog posta je Badnji dan.

Tog dana, a u nekim krajevima i prethodnog dana, odlazi se u šumu i donosi grana mladog cerovog ili hrastovog drveta, kojoj se prethodno nazove: „Dobar ti dan, badnjače“ i pospe žitom. Na Badnji dan se, po pravoslavnom običaju, vraćaju svi dugovi i sve pozajmljene stvari.

Badnjak se u kuću unosi na Badnje veče. Jednim dijelom se nekada ložila vatra, a kada pregori, on se nosio u štale i torove, dok se drugi dio čuvao za položajnika, koji bi ga palio na sam dan Božića. Ovaj običaj se i danas ponegdje poštuje, a u gradskim sredinama badnje drvce ili grančica se kupuje na pijaci, unosi se u kuću čak i dan-dva ranije. Mnogi ga kite presnim ili suvim voćem i bombonama, a ispod njega stavljaju poklone za najdraže.

Paljenju badnjaka crkva je dala obredni smisao – grijanje oko badnjaka simbolizuje zagrijavanje ljubavlju prisutnih ukućana jer svako ovaj praznik obilježava u svom domu.

Slama (simbolizuje slamu na kojoj je rođen Isus Hrist i njenim unošenjem u dom se unosi Božji blagoslov) sastavni je dio obilježavanja Badnje večeri. Po starim običajima unosila se u kuću zajedno sa badnjakom i rasprostirala se po podu ispod stola, gdje stoji sve vrijeme Božića. U mnogim krajevima na njoj se i večeralo za Badnje veče. Danas je u urbanim sredinama slama simbolično privezana crvenim koncem za badnjak.

Za Badnji dan se priprema posna trpeza: suhe paprike punjene povrćem, samo rižom ili pasuljem, posna sarma od soje i crnog luka, posni pasulj, pita kupusnik u nekim krajevima, ponegdje krompiruša ili pita s orasima, riba, salata od krompira, salata od pasulja i crnog luka, uz orašaste plodove i sušeno voće, pečenu bundevu, kompot, posne štrudle i sitne kolače.

14 thoughts on “Tradicija i običaji na Badnji dan

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